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Dr Rafael Bowen
Rafael Bowen, D.D.S., D.Sc.

Rafael L. Bowen, D.D.S., D.Sc.

Research Interests

  • Bis-GMA
  • Composite materials
  • Restorative materials
  • Synthesis of polymerizable cyclodextrin derivatives
  • Adhesive bonding

With a career spanning 63 years, Dr. Rafael L. Bowen has worn several hats, including dentist in private practice, Director of the Paffenbarger Research Center (now the Dr. Volpe Research Center), and currently, Distinguished Scientist at the VRC. 
ADA Foundation VRC Volpe Research Center Rafael Ray Bowen BisGMA image
Simple model of bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA), sometimes referred to as, “Bowen's resin”.
Credited with the invention of dental sealants, Dr. Bowen is most often recognized due to his work with dental composite restorative materials, specifically Bis-GMA.  He is currently working with his colleague Jirun Sun on improving currently used Bis-GMA/TEGDMA systems. Selected Publications
  • Bowen RL (1956).  Use of Epoxy Resins in Restorative Materials.  J Dent Res 35: 360-369.
  • Bowen RL(1958). Synthesis of a silica-resin direct filling material—Progress report, J Dent Res 37.
  • ADA Foundation VRC Volpe Research Center Rafael Ray Bowen hexanoic image
    A ball-and-cylinder and a space-filling image of one of the many diverse reaction products of this polymerizable cyclodextrin derivative synthesis. This synthesis produced a family (group, ensemble, or collection) of copolymerizable cyclodextrin derivatives having many combinations and permutations; one family member is illustrated.  

    Full article can be found in: Synthesis of polymerizable cyclodextrin derivatives for use in adhesion-promoting monomer formulations. J Res Natl Inst Stand Technol 114(1): 1-9, 2009.
  • Bowen, RL (1963). Properties of a Silica-Reinforced Polymer for Dental Restorations. J Am Dent Assoc. Jan;66:57-64.
  • Bowen RL (1965). Silica-resin direct filling material and method of preparation, 1965, US Patent No. 3194783.
  • Bowen, RL (1978). Adhesive Bonding of Various Materials to Hard Tooth Tissues XIX. Solubility of Dentinal Smear Layer in the Dilute Acid Buffers.  Int Dent J 28:97, June.
  • Bowen RL, George LA, Eichmiller FC, Misra DN (1993). An Esthetic Glass-ceramic for Use in Composite Restoration Inserts, Dent Mater 9:290-294.
  • Bowen RL, Carey CM, Flynn KM, Guttman CM (2009) Synthesis of polymerizable cyclodextrin derivatives for use in adhesion-promoting monomer formulations. J Res Natl Inst Stand Technol 114(1): 1-9, 2009.
  • Bowen RL, Schumacher GE, Giuseppetti AA, Guttman CM, Carey CM (2009), Adhesive bonding to dentin improved by polymerizable cyclodextrin derivatives. J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 114(1):11-20.
  • Bowen RL Carey CM (2003) Type I Collagen Receptor Sites Modeled to Assist Design of Adhesion Promoters J Dent Res 82:61.
  • Bowen RL (2002) Demineralized Dental Collagen Viewed as a Substrate for Adhesive Bonding J Dent Res 81:51.
  • Bowen RL (2000) Computer-Modeled Assemblies of Hydrophilic Portions of Dental (Type I) Collagen J Dent Res 79:418.